Captcha - Spam preventing images

Tuesday May 30 2006 23:00

Captcha is the name for the images with random letters and some distortion that appears on each and every forum these days and even here on dublish. The purpose is to prevent the sites from spam. Here is an example in case you've no idea of what I'm talking about:

The idea with captcha is that one of the few things where human beats the computer is when it comes to detecting patterns. It is very hard for a computer to "read" skewed and distorted letters but hopefully not so hard for humans. So when you are asked to enter the letters you see in the pictures and you do it right the site can be pretty sure that you are a human.

Now I'm going to show you how to do this random picture generator in PHP. I assume that you have some basic PHP skillz before doing this. Before you start you need the GD library that allows you to create graphics in php. From php version 4.3 there is a bundled version of GD that works fine but if you have an earlier version you might need to download GD from and install it (follow the installation intructions at ).

I think I'll start by simply showing you the code for generating a image like the one above and then I will explain the code. This could also be good for the lazy readers who are not so much into understanding. So here you go:

$passlen = 6;
$height = 30;
$width = 200;
$possiblechars =
$code = "";

// generate random letters
for($i = 0; $i<$passlen; $i++){
   $code = $code .

// lowercase > hash > store in session-variable
$_SESSION['code'] = md5(strtolower($code));

$image = imageCreateTrueColor($width, $height);

// make a gradient
for($i=0; $i<$width; $i++){
   $color = imagecolorallocate($image, $i*180/$width+75,
$i*180/$width+75, $i*180/$width+75);
   imageline($image, $i, 0, $i, $height, $color);

// print out the letters
for($i=0; $i<$passlen; $i++){
   $r = rand($i*13,$i*15);
   $textcolor = imageColorAllocate($image, $r, $r, $r);
   $font = rand(3,5);
   imagestring($image, $font, $width/$passlen*$i+rand(4,7),
$height/2-rand(imagefontheight($font)/2, imagefontheight($font)),
substr($code,$i,1), $textcolor);

// draw border
$bordercolor = imagecolorallocate($image, 80, 80, 80);

// fix headers to avoid caching
header("Expires: Wed, 1 Jan 1997 00:00:00 GMT");
header("Last-Modified: " . gmdate("D, d M Y H:i:s") . " GMT");
header("Cache-Control: no-store, no-cache, must-revalidate");
header("Cache-Control: post-check=0, pre-check=0", false);
header("Pragma: no-cache");

header('Content-type: image/gif'); // set content-type
imageGIF($image); // output the image
imageDestroy($image); // destroy image to free memory

The concept here is to generate a random code, hash it and store it's hash value in a session variable. A hash value is a number generated from another value (or string) that seems to be totally random but if you hash the same thing again it hashes to the same value. To go backward though should be very hard, if you have the hash-value you are not supposed to be able to determine where it came from. When the user enters the code in your form and submits the form you can hash the code the user entered and compare it with the one that is saved in the session variable.

First part of the code declares some variables we will be using and runs session_start() so that we'll be able to use session variables.

The generation of the code is made by a for loop that runs as many times as the number of letters we want in our code. Each time it adds a substring from a random position of the string of possible chars.

When we have the code we store it in the a session variable called "code". Before we store it we make it lowercase because we don't want the case to matter, when we check if it matches with the code the user enters we will make that code lower case too. We also hash it with a hash algorithm called md5 that is built into php.

After this the graphical part begins. First we create the image so that we will have something to draw on. Then we want some background for the image and for our purpose a gradient is nice. If we had black letters on a white background it would be easier to distinguish the letters, the gradient will hopefully make it a little bit harder. We make the horizontal gradient by drawing lines from the top to the bottom for each pixel along the x-axis. The color of the lines get higher and higher RGB values the longer to the right we come. Exactly how the valus are calculated is not so interesting, I didn't want it to start with totally black so I added 75 and 180 is just some great distance from 255. Play around a bit with this code to make your own cool gradient.

Of course you are not limited to just grayscale, you can use whichever colors you would like. My thought here though was that I wanted the gradient to sometime be of the same color as some of the letters to make it hard for a computer to see the difference between the letters and the background.

After this it's time to start printing the letters. We want to make some special modifications to each letter so we loop through the code string. The letter needs a color, since the background goes from gray to white I thought it would be good if the colors of the letters went from black to gray. Then atleast the right letters would sometime have the same color as the color of the left background. We also want the color to be a little bit random so that the one who programs the bot can't just check what color to look for manually the first time and then let the bot always look for that color. When we have a color we also choose a random font. The imagestring function that we will use to output the letters uses built-in fonts that are named 1-5. Number 1 and 2 are to small to be good for our purpose so we randomize between 3 and 5. The random font makes it much harder for a computer to see the letters, if we hade just one font it could guess for a letter in that font and try it in different positions to see if it matches. With random fonts it will be a lot of more combinations to try. The imagestring line is very long but is actually not that interesting, it just prints out the letter with the color and font we choosed. The place for the output is a little bit random, both the x and the y position, but it's pretty limited to avoid letters to overlapse each other.

To finish up we draw a border around the image just to make it look better, this does nothing to make it harder for the bots.

After this we we set the headers of the image to make sure that it is not beeing cached. Caching is really really bad in this case because if the user writes the letter from a cached image it will not match with the code saved in the session which is of course bad bad bad.

Finally we set the content-type of the response that we are going to send to the browser to image/gif to make the browser present it like an image.

"imageGIF($image);" outputs our image in the GIF format. Other possible formats are JPG and PNG but then of course you also need to change the content-type. When we have outputted the image we destroy it to realease the memory.

Now you can save this as captcha.php or something like that. It doesn't matter that the file-extension is .php, the browser will read it like an image anyway because of the content-type. You can display it on a html page with the usual img-tag:

<img src="captcha.php">

If you really want the file-extension to be .gif you can put the file in a special directory and put a file called .htaccess in that directory. In .htaccess you write this line:

AddType application/x-httpd-php .gif

This makes your server read files with the .gif extension as php files in that directory. This only works on unix servers though.

The only thing left now is to make a page that uses the captcha picture and compares the users input to the code in the session-variable. Here is code for a very minimalistic example:

      <title>Form protected with captcha</title>

   if ($_POST){
      if (md5(strtolower($_REQUEST['code'])) ==
         echo "Correct code, you are human!";
         echo "Wrong code, bots are not welcome!";

      <form method="post">
            <img src="captcha.php" />
            <input type="text" name="code" maxlength="6" />
            <input type="submit" />

<? } ?>


You can view this example here.

It's very simple, the only advanced thing is that it convert the code the user entered to lowercase, hashes it and then compares it with the code in the session variable. When you use this you will of course have more fields in your form where the real input for a comment or something is written but this was just a simple example on the critical parts.

A lot of improvements can be done to this, I just showed a simple example, now you can use the image-functions to make your own captcha. For example some distortion might make it harder for computers to read and you can rotate or skew the letters to make it even harder. Don't go too crazy though, in case you're not making a site for google there won't probably be anyone who cares that much about spamming your site that he builds a bot specialized to crack your captcha.

Something that is very important to think about is the usability. We want to prevent bots from using your site, not the people! Some people might have difficulties reading the text, be sure to use enough with contrast between the color of the letters and the background. Also avoid letters that can be hard to read, for example 0 and O looks very similar in some fonts, and l and 1 are also hard to distinguish. In my example there is only letters so that might hint the user that there are no 1's or 0's in the code but it might be even better to delete O and l from the list of possible chars too.

Anyway I hope this helped you making a better site by preventing it from evil spammers. Good Luck!


skanaar @ 2006-06-01 22:46:59

Interesting site with examples of good and bad captchas:

s @ 2006-06-22 21:01:47


Anonymous @ 2006-06-27 14:25:28

Anonymous @ 2006-07-07 01:04:47

Nice Article but seems to be caching wrong cant imagine its my browser its the same in both. Had to view image to get right details to enter.

Anonymous @ 2006-10-18 07:48:00

Anonymous @ 2006-11-24 17:57:48

PHPFan @ 2006-12-16 19:28:28

Great!!!! Very Useful.

Magio @ 2006-12-18 03:22:59

Really very useful article.. i am going to implement this on my blog

Hemid @ 2006-12-28 06:08:16

thank you for this article.. very useful one

Ganiow @ 2006-12-28 06:11:35

Useful one.. I applied this in my sites.. working like a charm

denday @ 2006-12-28 23:00:12

I wonder how to distinguish 0 (zero) and o (o letter).

ESPN @ 2007-01-25 21:38:30


Vijay @ 2007-01-31 18:08:22

Excellent one. Thanks for your pointers to create one easily.

Pozycjonowanie @ 2007-02-07 14:15:27

Excellent one. Thanks for your pointers to create one easily. Keep up the good work. Greetings

Anonymous @ 2007-02-20 16:47:16

Anonymous @ 2007-02-26 11:41:13

Anonymous @ 2007-03-04 04:13:55

Shopping @ 2007-03-11 21:47:17

very useful, thx

mookky @ 2007-04-02 09:51:25

Thank you very much for your kind knowledge.

Anon @ 2007-04-22 11:39:14

It was very usefull to "me". <3 E>

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Abel @ 2007-11-19 21:32:26

Thank you very much!

bot @ 2007-12-14 05:18:54

captcha easily broken

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Thanks for sharing it. I like it, but if you can change the font,It might be better.

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